Millennials' Customer Dispositions Influencing Toothpaste Brand Loyalty Among University Students in Kenyan Private Universities


Zephania Opati
Paul Gesimba
Lily Njanja


Consumer attitudes play a crucial role in steering behavioral adoption, forming the essence of
human behavior. Attitudes toward brand loyalty, particularly for low-involvement products like
toothpaste, reveals a diverse spectrum of responses, encompassing both positive and negative
findings. Given the disparities across generations, this study delves into whether there has been
a shift in millennials' attitudes. This inquiry arises against the backdrop of diminished toothpaste
sales due to weakened economic purchasing power in Kenya, evident in extensive promotional
efforts by toothpaste brands. The study explores six dispositional factors influencing brand
loyalty: brand affect, trust, relevance, satisfaction, perceived quality, and brand loyalty. While
prior research has examined these factors individually, this study uniquely views them as
dispositional factors projected by consumers onto a brand to influence loyalty. Grounded in the
Psychology of Attitudes theory, the study adopts a descriptive research design. It targets 399
millennials in chartered private universities in Kenya, employing a multi-stage sampling method
and a self-administered Likert scale questionnaire. Structural Equation Modeling Regression
Analysis are employed to analyze the data. The research concludes that customer dispositions
play a pivotal role in shaping brand loyalty, encompassing all six identified factors among
millennials in Kenya. Notably, an increase in brand perceived quality reduced brand relevance.
Brand managers are encouraged to utilize innovative and compelling emotional messages in
their marketing strategies to mitigate perceived risks and maximize benefits, ultimately fostering
trust. They should offer specialized toothpaste tailored to specific needs and enhance the
perceived quality of the product. Future research endeavors should explore whether similar
findings apply to the Generation Z cohort, particularly concerning non-convenience products.


How to Cite
Opati, Z. ., Gesimba, P. ., & Njanja, L. (2024). Millennials’ Customer Dispositions Influencing Toothpaste Brand Loyalty Among University Students in Kenyan Private Universities. African Multidisciplinary Journal of Research, 1(1), 200–216. Retrieved from