African Multidisciplinary Journal of Research A Publication of St. Paul’s University Copyright: St. Paul’s University Journal All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior written permission of the Editor-in-Chief. en-US African Multidisciplinary Journal of Research 2518-2986 he Bible in Ateso - Uganda: A Contemporary Christian Community Perspective on the 1961 Translation <p>The Bible is the Sacred Scriptural Text of the Christian religion that gives narration of the <br>historical events pertaining the genesis of the earth from its initial establishment to the spread of <br>Christianity in the first century, CE. Mutually, the Old Testament and New Testament Texts have <br>experienced translation alterations over the centuries brought about by duplication of different <br>editions and the need to create the Bibles that communicate to the Christian community in their <br>local languages. The Teso Christian community in Uganda primarily depends on the translated <br>word of God which is made manifest to them through the Bible. Spiritually, they feel strengthened <br>whenever they read and listen to God’s word in their native language. However, the contemporary <br>Ateso Bible published in 1961 has many challenges and many Christians of Teso are limited to <br>use it, subsequently leading to ineffective use of the Bible in the present era. This article therefore, <br>is written to bridge the existing spiritual gap of the Bible and that of the contemporary Christian <br>community in view of the Ateso Bible in Teso. Using qualitative enquiry, this article was guided <br>by one study question: How do Iteso contemporary Christian community of Uganda evaluate the <br>1961 Ateso Bible translation? This article purposed to establish the factors affecting Ateso Bible <br>in addition to highlighting the social-spiritual effects that Ateso Bible in Uganda have had on the <br>community. 20 participants from the Roman Catholic Church and the Anglican Church were <br>purposively sampled to participate in the study. An interview guide was formulated to capture the <br>objectives of the study. The findings confirmed existing challenges in the Bible. A number of factors <br>affecting the Bible were identified by the participants and reported including, preference for clear, <br>accurate and natural version of Ateso Bible since the Bible is “God’s Word”.</p> Godfrey Okello Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-17 2023-08-17 8 1 1 18 The Role of Technology in Streamlining Purchasing and Supply Chain Processes in the Public Sector in Kenya <p>In recent years, the adoption of technology solutions has become increasingly important in the <br>public sector, especially in procurement and supply chain processes. The public sector in <br>Kenya faces various challenges, including inefficiencies, lack of transparency, and <br>accountability in procurement and supply chain processes. However, the adoption of<br>technology solutions can significantly enhance the efficiency, transparency, and accountability <br>of procurement and supply chain processes in the public sector in Kenya. This paper sought to <br>explore the role of technology in streamlining purchasing and supply chain processes in the <br>public sector in Kenya. The paper began by reviewing existing literature on technology <br>adoption in the public sector, procurement, and supply chain management. It also examined<br>the technological challenges facing procurement and supply chain processes in the public <br>sector in Kenya and the impact of technology on the efficiency of procurement and supply chain <br>processes. Furthermore, the paper analyzed the effectiveness of technology in enhancing <br>transparency and accountability in procurement and supply chain processes in the public <br>sector in Kenya. Based on the literature review, the paper recommended strategies for the <br>adoption and implementation of technology solutions to streamline procurement and supply <br>chain processes in the public sector in Kenya. The recommendations include building <br>awareness and understanding of the benefits and importance of technology adoption, involving <br>key stakeholders, addressing cultural and organizational barriers, ensuring data privacy and <br>security, and monitoring and evaluating progress. In summary, the role of technology in <br>streamlining purchasing and supply chain processes in the public sector in Kenya is <br>significant. This paper provides insights that can inform decision-making on technology <br>adoption in procurement and supply chain processes in the public sector in Kenya.</p> John K. Kagondu Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-17 2023-08-17 8 1 19 43 Religiosity, Indigenous Contributions and Martyrdom Misconstructions in the Growth Process of Christianity in Uganda <p>The entry of Christianity into Uganda to liberate mankind from thorny cultural life challenges <br>was initiated by Kabaka Mutesa 1. Since the 19th century, Christianity has had colourful <br>influences on indigenous communities, including, art, politics, family life, music, business, and <br>the way people express their cultural thoughts. In Uganda, missionaries presented white <br>culture Christianity that demonised the religiosity of indigenous people. They perceived black <br>culture as primitive and religiosity of indigenous people as an empty page that had no <br>historical encounter with the divine. This was a misconception; Ugandans were creative and <br>well informed in all life spheres. Organized cultural and political systems that provided fertile <br>ground for seeds of Christianity to germinate and flourish were already in place. Missionaries <br>were God-sent to complement on the Garden of Eden and the Tower of Babel instituted cultural <br>artistic works that were oscillating and had been spinning for generations. The primary seeds <br>of Christianity germinated and had a great impact on the Ugandan society. However, <br>indigenous people were reflected in literary works and reports as consumers of missionary <br>programmes but not co-partners in the propagation process. Other than Kabaka Mutesa 1, the <br>voices of the parliamentarians are non-existent in European missionary literary works. <br>Indigenous people contributed their time and skills as: guides, casual labourers, hosts,<br>interpreters, translators, providers of meals, land donors, vernacular teachers, producers of <br>raw materials, and consumers of imported exotic products, but their faces are not reflected in <br>the missionary success documented works. In the process of Christianity propagation, <br>martyrdoms were registered. The deadly scenarios were attributed to the brutal leadership of <br>the young king, Mwanga. However, scanning through the events that surrounded martyrdoms, <br>it is conclusive that missionaries propelled the massacres due to their inability to immerse<br>themselves in the host culture and understand indigenous social traditions.</p> Israel Musana Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-17 2023-08-17 8 1 44 64 Text interpretation of Ruth 4:1-12 through African Eyes: Towards Understanding Cross - Cultural Marriage Using Inculturation Biblical Hermeneutics <p>The story of the Bible cannot be told without the interaction of the church and the culture in which <br>the church finds herself. It can also be said that the story of the Bible in relation to the expansion <br>of the church is a cross-cultural story. Inculturation is the adaptation of the Gospel in a culture <br>and the influence of that culture as to its appropriation. It is a process that moves up and down <br>through and into the entire life of the church. The whole idea is in the Gospel becoming accustomed <br>to a culture and the Gospel authentically integrating the permanent values of a culture, rather <br>than its transient expressions, into people’s life and faith. Inculturating the biblical message needs <br>a hermeneutical method not only brewed in an African pot, but also relevant and applicable to<br>world Christianity. Thus, inculturation biblical hermeneutics must always seek to internalize the <br>biblical message translating it as part of the readers’ life. It is clear that the aim of inculturation <br>biblical hermeneutics is to inculcate the biblical faith and values into the life of the believer. Also, <br>the Bible provides the basis of the hermeneutics inculturation. It is critical to note that <br>inculturation biblical hermeneutics must always seek to internalize the biblical message <br>translating it as part of the readers’ life. Again, the quest of inculturation biblical hermeneutics is <br>to root Christianity in the soul of the African Christian. It is a quest to transform the African <br>Christian such that the Christian will be both African and Christian without apology. This paper <br>will endeavor to interpret the book of Ruth 4:1-12 using Inculturation Biblical Hermeneutics. It <br>will deal with three cultural issues found in this text which are: cross cultural marriage, levirate <br>marriages, and proposal of marriage. The paper begins by establishing the background, <br>illustrating the interpreter’s context, analyzing the context of interpretation, showing the socialhistorical context of the text, analysis of the context of text, analysis of the text in light of already <br>analyzed contemporary context, Biblical outlook of mixed marriages, interpretations, and then the <br>conclusion. Luo traditional community is used as an African example of cultural issues. The <br>implication of the study is on the identification of realities and context of cross-cultural marriage<br>and levirate marriage that need to be united and mutually enriched, and the dynamic relationship <br>between the Christian message and cultures. Thus, mixed marriages are enriching our cultures <br>and should be encouraged. However, marriage is a cultural issue and thus using inculturation <br>hermeneutics integrates the permanent values of cultures. The research has used conceptual <br>research method which is carried out mainly through study of literature.</p> Paul Okeno Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-17 2023-08-17 8 1 65 88 Urban Live-ability and the Challenges of Social Inclusion: A Case of Slum-Dwellers Around Karen Suburb, Langata Constituency, Langata Sub-county, Nairobi, Kenya <p><em>This paper investigates the challenges facing social inclusion efforts in urban live-ability among slum-dwellers around Karen suburb, Nairobi City, Kenya. Urban centers present a complex and dynamic element of the modern landscape. &nbsp;In that regard, there is over 1 billion people dwelling in the slums globally, and the number is expected to grow in the next few decades. However, the rapid urbanization is not commensurate to the urban centers’ ability to provide basic infrastructure such as roads and affordable housing; and basic services like tapped water and sanitation especially to the slum dwellers. Therefore, the slum dwellers have been subjected to extreme social exclusion and consequently growing inequalities that have attracted the attention of scholars, civil society, policy and decision-makers, and the affected citizens. The dystopian situation of social exclusion is more experienced in the urban-slums despite rapid urbanization world over. Urbanization has remained one of the most critical and fundamental forces driving the global economy, and one of the key indicators of economic productivity and economic development level. In that regard, the world cannot give up on urbanization because it is projected that by 2050, more than two-thirds of the global population might be living in the urban areas. Consequently, stakeholders are working hard to influence positively the changing contours of urbanization to achieve social integration and urban live-ability and social inclusion. The target population for this study was the households’ heads, born in the slums, and have been involved in attempts to improve the slum dwellers wellbeing. A mixed research method was used, thus a structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data, while for the qualitative method, an interview guide was used to collect data through Focus Discussion Groups. The study had four objectives: to establish the types of social exclusion experienced by dwellers in the slums, investigate the efforts by slum centers to promote social inclusion, determine how the Karen slum dwellers are affected by social exclusion, and to evaluate why the stakeholders’ efforts have not been effective in improving social inclusion in Karen slums. The study established the following: the social exclusion is fueled by poor governance, unfair distribution of resources, and the fact that slum dwellers do not participate in decision making and planning due to exclusion; poor relationship between the slum dwellers and the elites fuel tensions, and finally, inadequate service delivery. The efforts by the slum dwellers to improve their wellbeing bear little fruit due to wrong priorities by the government, lack of land tenure dissuades any long-term investment, the social environment in the slums remains insecure and volatile for business. For the existing opportunities to benefit the slums dwellers, there should be strong partnership between all the stakeholders, infrastructure development, participation and enactment of a strong policy framework. </em></p> Nason Vundi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-17 2023-08-17 8 1 89 110 Predictive Factors for Gambling and Prevalence of Problematic Gambling Among Students in Selected Public Universities in Kenya <p><em>Problem gambling is an emergent psychosocial as well as public health issue. Problem gambling behaviour causes interference and disruption in key domains of life; psycho-social, emotional relationships as well as physical. Gambling disorder is mainly marked and characterized by problem gambling behaviour that causes significant afflictions and distress in one’s life. The first objective of this study was to find out whether gender, socio-economic status, peer influence and acute stress are predictive factors for gambling. The other objective was to examine prevalence of problematic gambling among the subjects. This growth is navigated by increasing affirmation of legal gambling. In spite the fact that problem gambling among university students is a global public health issue, few studies have established its magnitude among university students in Kenya. &nbsp;The study was anchored on social learning theory and cognitive behaviour theory. There is need to identify predictive factors and inclinations as well as prevalence rates of gambling among university students. The target population was students in Kisii university. The researcher applied descriptive quantitative research design. Data was obtained from a researcher generated social demographic questionnaire. Respondents were screened for problem gambling using gambling anonymous inventory. The unit of analysis was 576 students from Psychology department. &nbsp;Data was purposively collected from a sample of 152 university students from Kisii University. Respondents who were aged 18-20 and 21-22 years were 44% respectively while those who were 23-25 years and above were 9.9%, in addition those who were aged above 26 years were 3.2%. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 25. Furthermore, the data was also analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques and the results were presented in form of tables and figures. The proportion of respondents with problem gambling was high among male as compared to female students. The results of this study showed that male gender is a risk factor for gambling. &nbsp;Further, the respondents whose socio-economic status was low (78%) were more involved in problem gambling compared to those in medium and high socio-economic status</em><em>. &nbsp;The study induced that low-social economic status is a predictive variable for gambling. Also, the </em><em>results of this survey revealed that peer influence and extent of gambling are significantly related. This was supported by a chi square of 8.723 and p value of 0.013&lt;0.05. This implied that peer influence is a significant predictor of gambling. Also, the findings showed that stress and gambling are significantly related. This was supported by a chi square of 11.084 and p value of 0.004&lt;0.05. This implied that stress is a significant predictor of gambling. In terms of gender, 48 male respondents (31.57%) had problem gambling, only 4 female respondents (2.63%) had problem gambling. The current study underscored the need to focus on problem gambling which could negatively impact on the psychological well-being of university students. The findings of this study may also help mental health practitioners to develop interventions that can address problem gambling among students.</em></p> Michael Mbiriri Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-17 2023-08-17 8 1 111 135 Exchange of Sexually Inclined Messages in Contexts of Dating and Romantic Relationships Among Young Students in Nairobi, Kenya <p>The surge in the use of smartphones and internet has coincided with an increase in sexting among <br>the youth. Existing studies have hardly provided comprehensive analyses of perspectives and <br>experiences of Kenyan youth on prevailing social contexts of sexting, particularly the nexus<br>between the practice and processes of dating and forming romantic relationships. This study aimed <br>at analyzing how the use of smartphones interrelated with the exchange of sexually inclined <br>messages in daily social life of middle level college (MLC) students in Nairobi, Kenya. The <br>research question that yielded the findings of this article was: how does exchange of sexting <br>messages relate to daily social activities among the selected MLC students? The study was guided <br>by the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The study used a qualitative research design conducted <br>using multiple case study. Urbanized students with diverse characteristics who used smartphones <br>to create and share sexually inclined messages were selected for the study. Non-probability <br>sampling techniques were employed to identify 65 students aged 18-24 years from five MLCs that <br>were purposively selected. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were used to generate <br>the data, and the ethical issues that were considered included consent, confidentiality and <br>anonymity. The data were audio-recorded, transcribed and thematic coding procedures were used <br>to organize the data into themes and subthemes. The findings revealed that the selected students’ <br>sexting perceptions and practices shaped and were shaped by online and offline sexting activities <br>of romantic partners. The study concluded that most students had misconceptions and harmful <br>perceptions about the role of sexting in romantic relationships. Therefore, the study recommended <br>use of responses that encourage bold and open discussion about sex, sexting and dating between <br>children and adults, and that foster healthy parent-child relationships.</p> Simon K. Chege Stella J. Chebii Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-17 2023-08-17 8 1 136 164 Dynamics In Healing and Deliverance During Covid-19 Within Africa NeoPentecostalism: Towards A Contextual Interpretation of Mark Gospel <p>The outbreak of covid-19 has brought both the positive and negative sides to most miracle <br>workers in the continent of Africa that use the name of religion in exploiting followers of their <br>rationality, specifically women. COVID-19 appears to have exposed the reality that not all <br>healing and deliverance are from God and can be physically healed. The 21st<br>-century miracle <br>workers in Africa are busy promoting themselves and making millions of money from their <br>congregations especially on women in the name of physical healing or deliverance through <br>misinterpretation of Mark gospel. The challenge is that the said men of God claimed to be <br>healing various kinds of diseases of which COVID-19 should not be excluded. This poses the <br>question that this paper addresses: How can Christian women interpret Mark gospel to <br>differentiate the real healing/deliverance from the fake ones within Neo-Pentecostal churches <br>in Africa? Hence, this paper used a desk research method through contextual interpretation of <br>Mark gospel on the concepts of healing and deliverance especially on women so that they are <br>not exploited or abused. This paper discovers that a contextual interpretation of Mark gospel <br>through desk research method shows how healing and deliverance appears very different from <br>Neo-Pentecostal approaches where substances such as eating grass, drinking petrol among <br>other dangerous practices being used in Africa toH exploit women of their resources and <br>rationality. This paper shows how contextual interpretation of Mark gospel idea of healing or <br>deliverance needs to be understood to teach women how false healers are exploiting them</p> Moses Ogidis Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-17 2023-08-17 8 1 165 182 Nations and People of Ancient Near East and their Impact on the Current African Kenyan Set Up <p>This paper examines the land of the ancient Near East that had complex urban centers in<br>Mesopotamia, the land between Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The history of Mesopotamia is <br>inextricably tied to the greater region comprising the modern nations of Egypt, Iran, Syria, <br>Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, the Gulf states and Turkey. We must acknowledge that Egypt is part <br>of Africa. The whole of this geographical area is often referred to as the Near or Middle <br>East. The topography of this place was a vast desert rimmed by rugged mountain ranges, <br>punctuated by lush oases and flowing through this topography are rivers. Its terrain was <br>rough, sand, rocky, and mountainous. There were several communities who lived within this <br>geographical area. Some of the names used for a people or community also referred to their <br>nation. They lived within the same locality and so they heavily influenced each other. This <br>work examines the life of the people in the ancient Near East by comparing it to the Kenyan <br>set up for valuable lessons. The influences infiltrated through marriages and assimilations. <br>Some of the areas of impact included religion, politics, economy, and social life. This is how <br>such an impact penetrated into the Old Testament from the people and nations of the ancient <br>Near East. The Old Testament shows such impact in its literature, name of God, language <br>and linguistic styles, culture, geography, art, worship, sanctuary, construction material, task <br>force or personnel, designs, liturgy, ritual, and religious elements. Such impact also took <br>place with African communities beginning in Egypt which are centrally found in the Bible <br>and spreading to other places like Kenya which will be given some focus in this article. Such <br>impact in Kenya touches on food, family set ups, means of transport, and trade among others.</p> Benard K. Kairu Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-17 2023-08-17 8 1 183 200