African Multidisciplinary Journal of Research A Publication of St. Paul’s University Copyright: St. Paul’s University Journal All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior written permission of the Editor-in-Chief. en-US African Multidisciplinary Journal of Research 2518-2986 Effects of Social Influences on Consumer’s Attitude toward Acquisition of Counterfeit Goods <p>Consumption of Counterfeit goods is a major issue locally and across the world. There is counterfeiting of products and services across sectors. Major cities and towns in Kenya. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of social influences on consumers’ attitude towards the acquisition of counterfeit goods. The study is anchored on the theory of planned behavior which posits that behaviors are determined exclusively on behavioral intentions. The theory enables marketers to understand the customers’ behavior and therefore predict their consumption behavior. The research employed a descriptive research design where the unit of analysis was 300 MBA students at Africa Nazarene University, Nairobi campus with a sample size of 50 students. The researcher developed a self-administered questionnaire using established scales administered through “drop and pick up later” method. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for data analysis. The raw data was processed, analyzed, and presented using graphs and tables. Among the key findings of the study is that Social influences (Reference group influence, Family influence, Peer pressure influence) strongly affect the consumer attitude toward acquisition of counterfeit product. The findings indicated that consumers are most likely to consider other people’s opinions, thoughts and affirmation when purchasing a particular product. These research findings can be useful in the formulation of strategies to check counterfeiting.</p> Beth W. Mwihaki Robert Abayo Copyright (c) 2023 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 7 2 1 21 Biblical Equity in Africa: Operationalizing and Mainstreaming Selected Pauline Texts on Mutual Gender Relations in the Africa church <p>Gender disparity is a global problem, though widespread in African society. It is more pervasive in African churches due to the influence of African culture and religion as well as misinterpretation of some selected Pauline text. However, these texts now have been given a liberative reading, which rejects the alleged superiority and elevation of men and the inferiority and subordination of women. Through the use of documented evidence, the article shows that the African church seems to have a problem in operationalizing and mainstreaming the new re-interpretation of the selected Pauline texts so as to facilitate biblical gender equity and mutual gender relations. While some gains have made as to the ordination of women into priesthood and consecration into episcopacy, the struggle continues until biblical gender equity and mutual gender relations are fully realized.</p> Kabiro wa Gatumu Copyright (c) 2023 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 7 2 22 25 “Till Death do us Part” Addressing the Theology of Perseverance within Nigerian Christian Marriage by Re-Interpreting Pauline's Concept of Marriage <p>Marriage is believed to be the first institution God established in the Garden of Eden. It is a union of commitment and taking of vows right from the Old Testament down to the New Testament. The scriptures support marriage to be a lifelong commitment that is outlined in Paul's letters. The phrase "till death do us part" is common in a substantial number of Christian weddings where the couples take the oath either by saying it after the person joining or they read it themselves. This begs the question: what kind of death is the phrase "till death do us part" referring to within Pauline's letters in salvaging theology of perseverance that is oppressive to women? Several marriages appear to be dead spiritually, socially, and emotionally, but not physically yet. For instance, many marriages are suffering from gender-based violence in the name of "till death do us part" and the theology of perseverance. Many women are suffering and most churches in Nigeria preach perseverance in marriages which appears to be one-sided due to many reasons that this paper seeks to address. It is on this backdrop that this paper attempts to re-interpret the "theology of perseverance" that is being preached by most members of the clergy within Nigeria through a "hermeneutics of life" and the salvific act of Christ as found in the Pauline letters on marriage. To also balance theology of perseverance to both men and women and not one-sided. Such re-interpretation helps in understanding and re-defining the concept of "till death do us part" and the "theology of perseverance" in salvaging women specifically from gender-based violence, subordination, and exploitation within the Christian family in Nigeria through balanced theology of perseverance.</p> Moses I. Ogidis Copyright (c) 2023 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 7 2 46 64 Mental Health Crisis: Interpersonal Violence During COVID-19 Experience <p>This paper focuses on the contemporary problem of Interpersonal Violence in Kenyan marriages and families, especially during the COVID-19 experience, and more so in the quarantine period. The paper takes the perspective that the multiple forms of violence in Kenya are a mental health crisis. This mental health problem of interpersonal violence in the Kenyan society is mirrored in marriages and family, and that during the quarantine period violence and mental health issues became a crisis. This qualitative research is a reviews literation from authors and scholars, who wrote during COVID -19. This mental health crisis focused on problems of abuse in physical, sexual, mental, behavioral and emotional systems of living. This paper uses Bowen Family Systems theory and is applied to violence in marriage and family during COVID -19, thus this theory is applied as a cross-cultural and multicultural context. Interpersonal violence as proposed in this paper is a trans generational system by transmission; from traditional African society, and through modern, colonial and postmodern periods and systems; and into the era of COVID- 19. Using Bowen’s Systems Theory, the study showed that under the stresses of COVID -19 (Mental Health Crisis), these systems of interpersonal violence as trans generational transmission of societal pathologies were more exaggerated. This study concluded that the oppressed and abused become perpetrators of interpersonal violence (though trans generational, cultural and ethnic systems of transmission) and also under stressors such as COVID- 19. The study also concludes that the best practices of counseling to marital and family systems must break the cycles of violence, abuse and oppression (from national to marital and familial systems).</p> Ndung'u Ikenye Copyright (c) 2023 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 7 2 65 88 Substitutionary Atonement In The Light Of Vicarious Liability <p>Classical atonement theories can be divided into two major categories: objective and subjective. Objective theories are not well received in contemporary society. The idea of the death of Jesus Christ being substitute to human punishment undermines the principal of morality; one dying in place of another person who does not even know why the other is dying for them is not readily received. In modern society, Christians would prefer to regard Jesus’ action in terms of moral influence. Nonetheless, the Bible teaches the work of Christ as being both objective as well as subjective in nature. Since it is the aspect of one man dying for many (objective) that is problematic to modern moralists, this article argues that by use of vicarious liability; a modern legal concept familiar to modern moralists, the death of Christ as being vicarious could be best understood. The vicarious liability is both subjective as well as objective. Thus, this article argues that the work of Christ should be considered in its entirety. The article makes brief survey of some of the classical, medieval, Reformation and contemporary period atonement theories that attempted to explain the work of Christ as an atonement. In the research, the authors realized that some of those theories cannot find full acceptance today due to change of worldviews. The article applies the principle of analogia entis and nexus mysteriorum and uses contemporary doctrine of vicarious liability, a philosophy that is familiar, as its lumen sub quo in explaining the doctrine of substitutionary theory. The research is both library and field. For field data collection, a non-probability sampling was used.</p> Patrick Omutia John M. Kiboi Copyright (c) 2023 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 7 2 89 100 The essentiality and Authority of the canonical scripture for an actual Christian life in the world <p>Canonicity refers to the normative or authoritative books inspired by God for inclusion in Holy Scripture. Scripture are sacred texts that serve a variety of purposes in the individual and collective lives of a religious tradition. Scriptures may be used to evoke a deeper connection with the divine, convey spiritual truths, promote mystical experience, foster communal identity, and to guide individual and communal spiritual practice. This paper is a plea to rediscover the essentiality and authority of the Scriptures for an actual Christian life in the world. It begins with some clarification about the locus of authority, and then presents some key issues regarding the authority of Scripture. It is argued that the concept should be understood in close association with the authority of God, the authority of the true story of the world in Jesus Christ, obedience and transformed lives. Throughout the paper, special emphasis is placed on the authority of Scripture as the “living” and “active” word of God for an obedient and transformed Christian living in the world. The research has used conceptual research method which is carried out mainly through study of literature.</p> Paul A. Okeno Kabiro wa Gatumu Copyright (c) 2023 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 7 2 101 123 Interrogation of the Influence of Christian Higher Education Institutions on Spiritual Formation and Liturgical Alignment on Their Staff and Students in Kenya <p>This paper investigated the role of Christian higher education institutions’ (CHEIs) influence on Christian spiritual formation among their staff and students in Kenya. Christian spiritual formation is an essential integral part to intellectual development; therefore, the role of CHEIs in facilitation of Christian spiritual information cannot be overemphasized. Christian spiritual formation has become one of the emergent research fields within Christian CHEIs, however, there are limited studies investigating the role of CHEIs in influencing spiritual formation. But it is widely assumed that CHEIs play a leading role in integration of faith and academic studies and debates. The pathway to spiritual formation has four main approaches: firstly, enhanced spiritual growth leading to positive outcomes in the areas of academic performance and leadership development. Secondly, there is also the adoption of key activities to foster sustainable spiritual development. Thirdly, diverse strategies that my lead to improved spiritual development are employed; fourthly, there is the intentional integration of spiritual formation activities into the classroom. For example integrating faith with academic practices, or simply praying in class before and after the lessons. Spiritual formation is fundamental in the future of development of the students’ character, professionalism and most significantly preparation of future leadership. Christian spiritual formation enables the participating stakeholders for both public and a private dynamic role in sustainable leadership. This is a descriptive study and was guided by three objectives, to: investigate the role of the CHEIs in promoting Christian spiritual formation among the staff and students establish the perceptions of Christian spiritual formation among the staff and students among the CHEIs, determine the programmes implemented in the CHEIs to influence Christian spiritual formation for staff and students; finally, investigate the challenges faced by CHEIs in promoting Christian spiritual formation. A qualitative method was adopted to enable the researcher to have an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon; thus data was collected using an interview guide. The findings of the study are as follows: Christian spiritual formation was seen as an opportunity to promote Christ-entered education, preparation for servant leaders, transformation of the world, deepening of spiritual life and character for staff and students, finding God’s purpose, preparation for next generation of leaders establishment of dynamic CHEIs where social and intellectual engagement takes place; social involvement and leadership development, the HEIs role is to enhance Chapel attendance to have corporate worship, service and community life, chaplaincy services and personalized meetings to have encounter with God; having evangelistic ministries to facilitate participation in transformational ministries, discipleship and pastoral care.</p> Nason Vundi Copyright (c) 2023 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 7 2 124 148