African Multidisciplinary Journal of Research http://journals1.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr en-US spuresearch@spu.ac.ke (Dr. Chongombe Djongana) pgichiri@spu.ac.ke (Dr. Peter Gichiri) Tue, 23 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.7 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Baptism, Church Attendance And Their Economy of Salvation In African Christianity: Covenantal Fidelity As Panacea http://journals1.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/155 <p>Statistics show that Christianity has moved from the global north to the global south. Same statistics show that about 85% of Kenya’s population is Christian, yet, observably, not all people with baptismal names attend Church regularly. Many have understood baptism as salvific in itself and thereby not needing to continue with Church worship after they are baptized. Research shows that most people after they are baptized, they become nominal Christians, only attending Church services on special occasions while others abandon church attendance all together. Baptism is understood to be the sacrament of salvation, Acts 2:37. Thus it has been understood as a rite of entry into membership of the Church. Therefore, this article poses the question: Is baptism sufficient for one’s salvation and does one need to maintain church attendance to retain their salvation? To respond to these questions, this article explains the meaning of baptism, the place of baptism in salvation, the significance of church attendance in relationship to endurance of salvation and shows how people’s culture could help in their understanding of baptism and its economy in salvation. The hypothesis of this article is that if baptism and its economy of salvation is explained in the light of African covenantal fidelity to African Christian converts, they would understand it and this would solve the problem of Church apathy.</p> Kiboi John M. Copyright (c) 2022 http://journals1.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/155 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 City of Religions, Regalia and Consumerism: Exploring Religious Diversity in the Neo-Liberal City of Isale-Eko, Lagos Island http://journals1.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/156 <p>Social theorists have noted how the recent rise in importance of economics as a determining social field, namely consumerism and neoliberalism, have coincided with the renewal of formerly repressed or delegitimized “traditional” religious forms. Such a claim could be made for Sub-Saharan Africa and Nigeria in particular. This paper examines the validity of such a claim and shows how these dynamics are occurring empirically, through complex processes of recomposition, revival, re-interpretation, syncretism, bricolage, et cetera. The paper specifically focuses on the interface between religions in Isale-Eko, Lagos, Nigeria. Isale-Eko is an urban area of Lagos Island in Lagos State, Nigeria. It is a commercial area. In spite of the strong presence of commercialization and the influence of modernization in the area, religion is still accorded prominent attention by the indigenes of Isale-Eko. For example, the Eyo, an African religion fiesta, attracts the attention of both local and foreign tourists. Most of these tourists are Christians and Muslims. The African indigenous faith was the first religion to be established in Isale-Eko, while Christianity and Islam came much later. The influence of the two foreign religions led to a serious decline of traditional cults in the area. However, there is a revival of the beliefs and practices of the autochthonous religion. The state sponsored Eyo festival and the Isese Day attest to this fact. As a result of syncretic activities among Christian and Islamic adherents who patronize traditional priests known as babalawos, the dividing line between traditional and foreign beliefs and practices is becoming difficult to draw. Scholarly publications on religious diversity in Lagos Island have consistently opened academic vacuums yet to be explored. It is in response to the yearnings created by these vacuums that this paper is visualized. Using sociological and historical approaches, this paper submits that there is continuous dialogue between African indigenous religion and foreign religions in Isale-Eko, Lagos Island. This dialogue has given rise to peculiar syncretic beliefs and practices in contemporary Lagos Island.</p> Tokunbo Bankole M. Copyright (c) 2022 http://journals1.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/156 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Training Needs of Domestic Workers and their Employers: A Case of Nairobi Metropolitan Area, Kenya http://journals1.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/157 <p>Training enhances work performance, employee commitment and job satisfaction. Domestic workers require training too as their service is inevitable and valued by the middle and upper-class families. Despite the utility of domestic work, both the employers and employees consider it a temporal job, investing less in training. Most of its training is task-oriented skills, labour, and human rights but less is devoted to interpersonal, conflict, and personal skills. This paper sought to establish domestic workers' non-tasks needs and their employers' training needs. It used the needs’ centred training model and a purposive sample of 26: 11 domestic workers, five fathers, and ten mothers from Nairobi metropolitan area Kenya. Thematic analysis was used. Results show that domestic workers are required to be trained on time management, balancing work-life, self-esteem, work ethics, negotiation, saving and investment, career progression, personal grooming, and choosing an employer. The employer desired skills on how to stay and relate with a domestic worker, tasks to assign, how to empower and choose a worker. Jointly they required: conflict management, boundary management, people, and communication skills. Implications for practice and further study are provided. The curriculum for domestic training should include an employer component and more stakeholders should be involved in identifying domestic workers training needs.</p> Muasya Gladys Copyright (c) 2022 http://journals1.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/157 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Threat of Postmodern Relativism to the Church in Nairobi, Kenya: A Postmodern Public Theology Approach http://journals1.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/158 <p>The church is one of the social institutions of the society with the primary purpose of the religious and spiritual upbringing of men and women, young and old into conformity with the life of Christ for better society. Historically, the church received its heritage of beliefs, doctrine and practices that has been passed down from the apostolic age to present postmodern time. However, the universality of the church as the custodian of truth is now being challenged through its doctrine and practices within some churches in Nairobi city of Kenya. Several young people feel the church is no longer attractive based on the traditional theologies and liturgies within the various denominations. This has posed a challenge to the postmodern church and raises the main question this paper addressed: how can the church re-conceptualize its theology to effectively engage with the postmodern Nairobi youths? This paper employed a postmodern public theology in addressing the need for the church to re-conceptualize her theology to resonate with the reality of several young people. Several churches within Nairobi should understand that the gospel message needs to be contextualized to address issues young people are facing and also be dynamic in the liturgies that accommodate contemporary life. Understanding that the way of life and ministry during the apostolic time is quite different from the postmodern time. The use of postmodern public theology in this work aims at bringing into dialogue the traditional theology of the church with contemporary so that it will accommodate every member of the church so that they will feel at home within the church and during services.</p> Mutuma Jackline M., Ogidis Moses I. Copyright (c) 2022 http://journals1.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/158 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Pursuing livelihoods in insecure environments: Coping mechanisms by women small scale traders in Mathare Slums in Nairobi, Kenya http://journals1.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/160 <p>The study aimed at establishing the kind of insecurity facing women who pursue livelihoods through small scale trading in Mathare slums and how they are able to develop coping mechanisms amidst the violence. This paper presents findings on the narratives of women who derive livelihoods from small scale trading. Data was collected from interviews from 20 women and two focus group discussions to explore security challenges that women small scale traders encounter, methods of coping and perceptions on institutional support. Data was content analyzed to generate narratives and experiences of participants. The results from the study indicate that women in Mathare have multiple roles within their community and some of these roles cause them to be vulnerable as they carry out their livelihoods. Livelihoods in Mathare are very dynamic especially for women and they choose to pursue whatever earns them survival money. Women encounter a number of security challenges such as muggings, domestic violence and sexual assault. They find it difficult to report these cases and they have had to device localized measures to keep themselves safe as well as continue with their livelihoods. Recommendations generated from the study include enhancing the capacity of self-help group as they are an important and reliable means for women to strengthen their businesses and strengthening the power of community advocacy groups to enhance relations between the police and community members which seem to be laden with mistrust</p> Njihia Carolyne W. Copyright (c) 2022 http://journals1.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/160 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Semblance Divine Derivations of Azande Surnames: A Cultural Appraisal of Christianity http://journals1.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/161 <p>Many biblical scholars have written extensively about the personal Divine name of Yahweh (יהוה ) which in English is in reference to the God of the Hebrews. “The Bible is first and foremost about God and his/her dealing with humanity,” (Aloo, 2019: 22). The way in which this God dealt or continues to deal with humanity varies from one community to another, depending on the context. The different names which are attributed to God vary from one community to another. One may easily conclude that the other community or tribe does not know God and does not respect His Divine name. However, the way God revealed His name or Himself to the Hebrew Patriarchs is different from the way in which the same God has been revealing His name or Himself to the different people, including Africans. Each ethnic group occupies a geographical location and characterized by unique cultural traits and worship of God. In reference to Exodus 20:7 which says that “You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain; for the Lord will not hold him guiltless who takes his name in vain.” Based on this verse the Jews cannot call or pronounce the name Yahweh (יהוה ) because God’s name is Holy. However, this is not the case among the Azande people in South Sudan. Traditionally, an Azande person cannot call or mention the name of an elder person. But the question is, why do the Azande people name their children with names which are derived directly from the Divine name of Mbori? In reference to Exodus 20:7, does it mean that they are misusing the Divine name of Mbori? Does it mean there is syncretism between Azande tradition religion vis a vis Christianity and the Bible? This article is written to bridge the social gap between the Azande tradition and that of the Jews concerning the use of the Divine name of God. It also explains the perception of the Azande on God’s name and how His name is being used among them. More so, it provides an insight into the Azande cognition and encounter with God in their daily life, thus, providing an objective perspective of the Azande traditional religious view. Furthermore, the article encourages the Azande people to name children with names which stem from the Divine name of Mbori. Since those names exalt God and they explain the goodness of God to the Azande people and, above all, such names are meaningful and reveal the character or identity of the bearers. The practices of giving bad names to children among the Azande is on rise and this needs to be avoided, since those names may bring bad luck to people bearing such evil names. This article discourages husband and wife from using bad names as weapon(s) to fight each other in their marriage. For Christianity to be rooted in the hearts of the Azande, the concept of God needs to be molded into the social aspect of an Azande person and enables him/her to live harmoniously with his/her fellow members in the community.</p> Kumbonyeki M. Paul Copyright (c) 2022 http://journals1.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/161 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Ubuntu Eucharist as Solution to the ‘Open Table Debate’ In Africa http://journals1.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/162 <p>The definition of sacraments and its notion is that through them God channels his grace to humankind. Despite this understanding, some churches deny some of their members access if they have not met certain conditions like being baptized, confirmed or when they have been judged with some form of sin and they are put under discipline. Some Churches in the West, practice Open Table while others adhere to Closed Table. In Africa, many Churches with links to missionary roots e.g. Roman Catholic, Anglican, Presbyterian, Methodist and the Evangelical Congregational Church in Angola (IECA), practice Closed Table. This article considers the debate on whether the Eucharist should be open to all regardless of their status or closed and only offered to those judged as right. Although the debate is a concern of all churches worldwide, this article will use the situation in the IECA as a case study. The article assesses the consequences of closing the table and or opening the table and borrows the African philosophy of Ubuntu to argue that administration of the Eucharist should be aligned with the principles of Ubuntu philosophy in Africa, if it has to achieve its intended purpose of being the conduit of channeling God’s grace to all for the purpose of salvation.</p> Gomes Alberto C, Kiboi John M. Copyright (c) 2022 http://journals1.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/162 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A qualitative enquiry into manager and non-management perspectives of internal relationship cultivation efforts in selected non-profit organisations in Kenya http://journals1.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/164 <p>Relationship management is a rapidly evolving paradigm in public relations research. Increasingly, public relations scholars recognise the pivotal role played by relationship cultivation strategies in sustaining healthy organisation relationships, which aid organisations meet their missions. Literature, however, has established the dearth of research on this subject in non-profit organisations NPOs in Kenya. The study was guided by one research question: How do management and non-management employees evaluate existing relationship cultivation strategies used in non-profit organisations? Subsequently, the purpose of this study was to establish how relationship cultivation strategies impact employee-organisation relationships (EORs). The study was guided by relationship management theory and two-way symmetrical communication framework. The non-profit organisations selected for this study comprise a large healthcare organisation and a faith-based organisation (FBO). Both organisations were purposively sampled as were the 24 participants in this study. An in depth interview guide was modified from an existing instrument to capture the objective of this study. The results of the study confirmed existing relationship cultivation dimensions. Participants identified a range of organisation-specific relationship cultivation strategies and reported a preference for more open and participatory relationship cultivation strategies and a participative leadership culture. Effective relationship building is hampered by among other factors, mistrust and inconsistent relationship cultivation strategies. In both organisations relationship cultivation was viewed as a human resource rather than a PR/communication manager role. The study concludes that for internal relationships to be effectively managed, relationship cultivation efforts should be a core task of public relations or communication managers. Further, these efforts should be intentional and invite employee participation. The study recommends a more robust public relations manager role that prioritises internal publics of non- profit organisations.</p> Gitau Julie G., Okumu-Bigambo Copyright (c) 2022 http://journals1.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/164 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000